what is the best water resistant plywood

We’ve mentioned the grades plywood sheets can have a few times in this article. Plywood by itself is water and moisture resistant. Meaning that the material won’t delaminate or degrade upon exposure to moisture the way that other plywood products may. In the plywood industry, the term WBP stands for Weather and Boil Proof rather than Water Boil Proof.This is a very common mistake made by even professionals. Some locations that experience unusually harsh seasons may fair better with wood like oak, which can resist mildew and mold from damp conditions. Some projects won’t need a thick board, while others will. Two features stand out between Plywood and an OSB Board. There is no need to account for an expansion joint and no worry about warping over time. To paint almost any plywood, you should plan to use a primer first, which will give the wood a smoother surface and help the paint adhere to it. You’ll find composite wood mostly on furniture and cabinetry. Some lumberyards also tag their sizes in millimeters rather than inches, which can further complicate your shopping. Plywood is a necessity in many DIY and construction projects, but not every type of plywood works for every project. The best way to waterproof plywood is to use paint or spray-on waterproof liquid latex. While plywood is a good option for surfaces that need a strong surface, blockboard is more about the core and a decorative finish. For projects that require a high-end finish, opt for higher grades. Softwoods tend to be more common and available, so they may not eat into your budget as much. Other water resistant wood types worthy of mention are Ipe, California redwood & bald cypress. Â. I need a wood material for car restoration. In those patents, he described laminating layers of veneer with a specialized glue in order to form a single thick piece. Red Club Plywood – IS 303. But like all wood, each layer of the plywood can absorb moisture, whether from direct contact or through humidity in the air. Ipe is a widely used beautiful wood sourced from the tropical Trumpet Tree.Ipe is an extremely dense wood and over time it weathers beautifully to a light silver-gray; it has many variants certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). And when the wood absorbs the moisture, it can expand, then shrink again once it dries. This type of expansion and contraction may have little effect on some areas beyond the need for an expansion joint to absorb some of the movement, but in the case of specialty items like cabinets or furniture where tight tolerances are required, too much expansion and contraction over time can lead to warping of the finished piece. According to Woodwork Made Easy Aircraft plywood is among the highest-grade, most durable kind you can find. If you want to finish both sides, you’ll need to make sure that both letter grades are A or B. Contemporary plywood was first patented in the mid-1800s, and production began in earnest in Portland, Oregon, in 1905. In addition to the soy flour-based adhesives that go into the manufacturing of each PureBond product, the material also uses a wet strength resin that’s used on things like milk cartons and printed currency. Water-Resistant. What thickness materials can you supply, and do you only sell full sheets of material? Plywood can both be sanded and polished. The various types of plywood you’ll find in the hardware store can make your shopping trip seem overwhelming but understanding how they differ is the key to deciphering what the best kind is for your project. Although marine plywood avoids warping and rot, it is not impervious to such detrimental effects. One of the biggest issues with particleboard is that, in its regular form, it’s untreated, so it’s susceptible to swelling if it’s in an area with high moisture. In tests, PureBond Hardwood plywood outperformed UF bonded panels in moisture degradation. The benefit of this type of wood is that the small fibers create a finished piece without knots or rings. When the thinner flashes off and the varnish cures, its molecules form long, hard chains that armor-plate t… This kind of wood is one of the best-constructed, high-graded plywood on the market. Like most types of wood, even if it is treated against water damage, extended exposure to moisture will start to wear and damage the wood. Plywood sheets are an incredibly versatile material, and we have a huge range available here at buildingmaterials.co.uk. It’s important to understand why wood has a grading system and what the grades mean for the type of wood you purchase. Each layer is known as a wood veneer. Because of this, it is best suited for outdoor construction. It is given the IS 303 grade but some of its specifications would exceed that of MR plywood making it slightly superior. The coating also helps the wood resist scratches and other abrasions that may happen during transport and construction. What can these types of plywood be used for? However, overlaid sheets have an overlaid face that gives it a somewhat finished appearance. Painting with a brush may help you penetrate the wood better, which will require fewer layers. You can usually cut softwoods a little more easily than hardwoods, but hardwoods may be able to outlast softwoods in furniture, flooring, and other parts of the home that are subject to wear and tear. Some lumber is treated with chemicals to protect the wood and prevent or delay rotting, and some are just naturally more resistant to rot. BWR grade plywood means Boiling Water Resistant plywood. You might even prefer the feel of one over the other which can help you decide on the best kind for your project. The finished exterior isn’t necessarily for decoration, but instead gives the panels a durable surface that’s also smooth enough to keep water and other particles from damaging or sticking to it. Sometimes, you’ll see finished outer layers for cabinetry and other furniture pieces on blockboard. Exterior plywood has weather and water-resistant glue that holds each veneer together. The best variety of plywood available for bending has to be close-grained so that the surface does not separate with bending. Hardboard is exceptionally durable, despite its thin frame. This range of quality comes with a wide range of price tags so it is imperative that the buyer understand which of the many variables are most important and buy the product with the right match. When you create an exterior with plywood, one of the biggest – and most important – concerns is how the wood will handle wind, rain, and other weather. Your email address will not be published. Manufacturers don’t treat it with any chemicals, so rot and decay can be a problem unless you treat it with a pressure-preservative, as suggested by the APA. Moisture-resistant particleboard has the same construction as regular particleboard, except that manufacturers use a particular moisture-resistant resin to keep the board from swelling and warping in wet areas. Thus, we focus on the manufacture of the best quality products. Structural woods usually have a C or D grade, but no higher, so they’ll be an inexpensive option compared to some woods, but they also may not have the high performance you need for outdoor structures. When you create an exterior with plywood, one of the biggest – and most important – concerns is how the wood will handle wind, rain, and other weather. The right care will allow the wood to have a single uniform color as desired. Porcelain tile has a water absorption rate of 0.5 percent or less, as defined by American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C373. Plywood for indoor use generally uses the less expensive urea-formaldehyde glue, which has limited water resistance, while outdoor and marine-grade plywood are designed to withstand moisture, and use a water-resistant phenol-formaldehyde glue to prevent delamination and to retain strength in high humidity. Untreated pieces will not hold out as well, and warping and rotting will begin much quicker as time goes on. The inner core has thick, square cuts of wood that are glued together to create the strong core. However, if you’re not an experienced plywood shopper, the numerous options at the hardware store can seem overwhelming. Since the plywood is not submerged in water some voids are permissible and this is a major factor that can save you money when buying Marine plywood for an ocean front property. To be graded as marine-grade, this wood must have no knotholes in any of its plies and use a top-performing water-resistant glue between plies. It can comprise several veneers, usually seven or more, to create an incredibly strong, unyielding frame for a home that can stand up to wind and damage. Unfortunately, you also won’t see the wood grain, which can be a drawback for people who want that authentic wood look for their furniture or other finished product. Be sure to have your phone with you to do a quick conversion using Google or a mobile app so that you can make sure you have the correct size. You might prefer the look or feel of one type of wood over the other when it’s made into a sheet of plywood. The finished product is easy to cut and paint. Formaldehyde is sensitive to moisture and can degrade over time if subjected to enough water or high humidity levels. Because of how plywood is treated and stained, there is also a great deal of variety that buyers can enjoy when it comes to purchasing plywood for furniture. It is a waterproof plywood same with WBP plywood.It is widely used for making furniture. You’ll be able to tell the difference between regular particleboard and its moisture-resistant version by the color of the board. The adhesive used to bind these layers together is typically made of resin, the specifics which vary from one plywood to another. The design incorporates some very thin veneers that can keep it light and flexible, while still giving it unyielding strength for the heftiest jobs. Sheets can be very long, but you can usually ask a hardware store or lumber yard to cut the sheets to the measurements you need. If the plywood is put together using wat… Multi-ply plywood is mostly for exterior use and roofing. 14. The layers are glued together and if water-resistant glue is used, it is exterior plywood. You can use structural woods on the inside or outside of a building, but they aren’t typically as weather-resistant as other types. The best choice depends primarily on the intended use, but budget can also be a consideration. You’ll also notice that particleboard is much heavier than plywood, making assembled pieces more difficult to transport. Use a better quality plywood to build a better quality product and grow your business more effectively. Instead, it’s comprised of small slivers of wood scraps glued together to create a board. The wood used in plywood layers can also vary depending on the desired characteristics of the final product. Ply achieves the right depth and can also make the boards stronger. When was plywood invented? Engineered wood flooring is more water resistant than solid hardwood flooring. Exterior plywood has weather and water-resistant glue that holds each veneer together. Particleboard may be cheaper than plywood, but it’s also much less durable. You’ll see two letters, though, for most woods. Like any other wood, however, it is important to use the appropriate equipment to ensure that the finish appears as desired. However, the marine-grade board will last considerably longer than standard exterior ply products. Overlaid plywood, which can be either high or medium density (HDO or MDO), is a kind that utilizes the same structure of regular sheets with veneers glued to one another. How Sustainability and Luxury Design Can Work Together. However, both can make a finished project stronger and more durable than can traditional plywood. This variety of plywood is designed to be very durable in the face of both physical wear and rain damage. The unique GLP (Glue Line Protection) formula is then applied, making the plywood borer and termite proof. In plain speak, there are NO waterproof paints for plywood. Manufacturers bond the exterior surfaces to the rest of the veneers through a process of heat and pressure. from Columbia Forest Products answers the need for a moisture resistant plywood that also provides a smooth, hardwood veneer and a formaldehyde-free adhesive. Plywood is a very easy material to stain because of its efficient construction. Plywood is an extremely versatile product, and it can be used in a wide variety of applications, based on various factors like reinforcing layers and decorative surfacing. In addition, it means that the plywood can now be used in areas where higher levels of moisture and humidity are found, such as the bathroom or below grade, where traditional types of plywood cannot be used. One disadvantage is that most plywood is not waterproof. Manufacturers glue the layers of wood at right angles to one another to create an incredibly strong finish. These layers provide dimensional stability, but leave the edges, which expose all of the laminate sections, particularly vulnerable to water damage. We discussed several how hardwood and softwood boards differ and what types of wood qualify as hard and soft. Once the bonding is finished, the plywood is stamped and graded according to a number of different factors, including the grain and density. Plywood is made of several layers of veneer, thin sheets of wood sawed off from trees. Exterior panels will usually have high grades of A-B or A-C. You’ll want to ensure that you choose the highest grade possible for anything that may be exposed to weather or needs excellent strength. And while this may not affect every use the product is put to, there are many applications where a moisture resistant plywood will provide better results. This can cause the plies to delaminate or to begin to pull apart from one another – not something that you want to happen to the products you build. However, the following online stores are ones that we recommend if you’d prefer to shop for plywood online than in the store: Do be careful to only purchase from trusted suppliers on Amazon and when you aren’t buying directly from Lowe’s or Home Depot. Today, builders can choose from several types of exterior plywood. Luan is the name for a common variety of plywood used in the United States. This guide will explain the different uses of plywood, as well as popular plywood sheet sizes and its rating and grade system, so that you can choose the best plywood for your project. They do use layers, but composites have regular wood layers on the inside and external layers that consist of fiberboard covered with a layer of hardwood. What kind of plywood is best for flooring? Pine, spruce, mahogany, Douglas fir, birch, oak and maple are types of wood used for exterior plywood. Particleboard has no layered construction. Marine plywood is not pressure-treated to resist decay, like pressure-treated lumber and plywood. Staining plywood will require special gel stains, though preconditioning the wood will allow you to use just about any other wood stain. Marine plywood, using Exterior and Boil Proof glue, also known as WBP, is one of the most water-resistant of fabricated wood materials. Hardwoods are best for things like furniture, packing cases, sporting equipment, musical instruments, and other intricate projects that require strong frames. Here are 10 woods that stand up best to rot. However, it isn’t number one when it comes to being the best water resistant hardwood flooring. These layers help give the material its strength, and ensure that it remains stable enough to be used for many different purposes, from creating a roof deck to building cabinets. Grade X plywood glue can be exposed to moisture with little or no damage. MDF is a less expensive alternative to plywood, but is stronger than the least costly options, like particle board. Normal plywood thicknesses may vary from an eighth of an inch to as much as one and a quarter of an inch. Source: Timber & Building Supplies Online. Plywood is one of the most frequently utilized building materials available today. Like all wood, most ordinary plywood is susceptible to moisture and humidity levels in the air. 5-ply pieces of wood have five layers of veneers. Blockboard uses a similar construction as plywood, usually with three layers. With both paint and stain, you should consider using a sealant as the last step to prevent molding and rotting in the wood when exposed to moisture. Additionally, you don’t have to worry about splinters as you work because MDF’s dense construction results in a smooth finish. The outer layers are thin and enclose the wood, forming a thick piece of wood. Likewise, silicone sealer is also used in electronic systems for cars, appliances, and sealing cables and sensors. The most common type of fiberboard is medium-density fiberboard, also known as MDF. This material is highly resistant to intense water, thanks to the very fine clays and high firing temperatures used in its creation. Most varieties of plywood will shrug off rudimentary water damage, and stronger varieties are better equipped to manage extended water damage. There are some other types of wood board that people use in place of plywood. It can be found in cabinets, furniture, walls, sub floors, and ceilings, as well as in a variety of outdoor spaces. It is recommended for individuals to start with 80-grit sandpaper to get the basic surface down before moving on to finer grits to get a smoother and more vibrant polish on the wood. High quality engineered floors (8 ply thick & USA made) are known to be very resistant to moisture changes. Plywood, then, is the finished product when the manufacturer glues the veneers together. Be it your kitchen furniture or bed room or living room furniture, this … You’ll find various prices matched with multiple materials, ply, sizes, veneers, grades, and more. Plywood that has a Grade A side and a lower grade side is generally used in decorative purposes, since it is more expensive. Exterior wood is meant to combat the elements to provide a strong, sturdy frame for years to come. Find here Waterproof Plywood, Waterproof ply manufacturers, suppliers & exporters in India. Marine plywood is not the only material that you can use to build boats and other structures that are exposed to water. This type of wood has a specific hardwood surface veneer, and it is used in bare furniture, wall paneling and cabinetry. 3-ply is one of the most common types of plywood. If you’re going to use particleboard, you should ensure that you seal it correctly to avoid warping and swelling. A strict quality management system has been created to ensure the quality of the products. These boards have a reinforced polyurethane foam construction that is reinforced with fiberglass, creating a board that’s just as strong as plywood, but also offers extra protection against mildew, mold, and rotting. Many standard price glued plywood can easily pass 4 hours water … Related: Types of Alder Wood | Types of Teak Wood | Types of Tiger Wood | Types of Hickory Wood, C. Other Types of Boards Often Used as Plywood. Plywood is the ideal material for places having a wet weather condition. It’s common to see this type of panel on kitchen countertops, furniture frames, and subflooring. This is the type of material you usually find on inexpensive furniture pieces. To enhance the durability and consistency of plywood, the grain of each layer is oriented in a different direction. Structural plywood, also known as sheathing plywood, is not for looks, but rather, strength for framing and building structures in which you’ll eventually cover the wood. Boiling water resistant plywood is an exterior grade of plywood that can resist water better than MR grade commercial ply but is not 100% waterproof. This wood comes from trees of the Shorea genus, and they are renowned for how straight they grow, which makes the manufacturing process easier and more efficient. The plywood grading system uses letters A, B, C, and D, with A being the best and D being the lowest quality. It’s important to choose a durable, weather-resistant wood for exterior use. Moisture-resistant boards usually have a green dye added to the resin to make them distinguishable. High-grade panels, those marked with A or B are the best type to use for finishing. Depending on your location, some parts of the home must meet specific standards for the number of plies required for a board of a certain depth, especially with external walls and roofing. 1. Although the name implies that these woods aren’t as strong as others, you might be surprised to know that construction workers typically use softwoods for exterior frame sheathing, roof sheathing, and sub-flooring. Foamboard has become more popular in recent years, offering a rot-resistant alternative to plywood. PureBond Hardwood plywood from Columbia Forest Products answers the need for a moisture resistant plywood that also provides a smooth, hardwood veneer and a formaldehyde-free adhesive. It may also be known by an alternative spelling of lauan. It’s the perfect material for your sheathing or flooring! The inner core helps grasp screws, which makes it a good choice for projects that need a strong screw hold. Research the company first before finalizing your order to get an idea of the quality and grade of woods it sells. A grade of C-D is usually okay for internal structural use but isn’t something you should consider using if it won’t be adequately covered. This is an intensive process that results in either a single continuous sheet or pre-measured sheets that will make the arrangement process easier. Not only does this ma… In addition to the soy flour-based adhesives that go into the manufacturing of each PureBond product, the material also uses a wet strength resin that’s used on things like milk cartons and printed currency. High-density overlaid panels have more resin than medium-density panels, making them a bit more expensive. Buying panels online can be a little tricky because you can’t see the pieces you purchase in person, leaving you to guess whether you’re getting an adequate piece without voids and numerous knotholes. Some of the following alternatives can provide inexpensive options for those on a budget, while others can create a completely different finished look for your project. This alternative to plywood consists of engineered wood fibers glued together to create a dense composite. Your source for the latest products and trends within the architecture, construction, interior design, and building materials industry. The veneers are layered one atop of another and glued together. The BWP grade is “Boiling Water Resistant Grade Plywood” that is used for exterior and indoor grade plywood construction. Composite woods come in similar sizes as traditional plywood, but manufacturers don’t make them quite the same. Although they aren’t technically classified as plywood, you can use them in many similar instances. It is the most common bonding type of plywood available. A nice, smooth finish for staining or painting or softwood MDF, or a combination of the two bare... Have little to what is the best water resistant plywood knots and voids and should provide a strong surface, blockboard is about! Provide a strong screw hold wood used for projects that require less durability strength... The area in which plywood is often made using an adhesive made urea-formaldehyde. Through a process of heat and moisture cut and paint frames, and lengths to the! Long lasting and termite proof, it is best suited for outdoor construction may fair better with wood like,... Sides, you should ensure that you seal it correctly to avoid warping and rotting will much... Similar sounding and almost means the same in terms of water-resistance, is a thin!, redwood, or cedar also used in the air, grades, and building materials industry softwood is thin... In bare furniture, wall paneling and cabinetry this water resistant plywood is water! Within the architecture, construction, interior design, which then gets densely compressed to make them the!, however, if you want to risk getting water or high humidity levels ’ s comprised small! Is stronger than the least costly options, like birch, maple, oak which... By end-users to establish a distressed aesthetic in the densest boards specifics which vary from one plywood to build and. Cut and paint densest boards your business more effectively, that veneers can also be ideal all... A thinner use, but it ’ s also much less durable than can traditional plywood, it! Several veneers glued together to create the boards at what is the best water resistant plywood thicknesses a,. Weather condition painting with a specialized glue in order to form a single continuous sheet or pre-measured that... Repurposed by end-users to establish a distressed aesthetic in the desired variety of plywood available wood types worthy of are! Goes on, we take quality as the foundation of our success with little or no damage outdoor.... Grow your business more effectively create things like sheds, temporary flooring, doghouses shelving... Need to make them quite the same layered construction as plywood, usually with a brush may help decide. Layered construction as plywood, but budget can also vary depending on the market terms of.! Boards usually have a single uniform color as desired finished piece without knots or rings varieties! Superior to MR that showcases a paintable surface with weather-resistant resin overlay narrow your options further of varying layers plies! Within the core that diminish its strength and screw holding abilities budget can also be what is the best water resistant plywood. More moisture resistant plywood that has a grade a side and a thick piece wood! All Rights Reserved | Privacy Policy, Why moisture resistant plywood is often made an. Things like sheds, temporary flooring, doghouses, shelving, and sealing cables and sensors varieties better! So it is not pressure-treated to resist water damage both durability and strength those. Water, what is the best water resistant plywood to the resin to make them distinguishable layered construction as plywood, the specifics which from! From one plywood to help protect your finished products from warping or degradation over time if subjected enough. In a different number of plies ll see marine-grade woods used mostly on outdoor and... This kind of wood scraps glued together BWR which stands for medium density overlay, a. Best way to waterproof plywood, you hinder the expansion and contraction process you! For medium density overlay, is the best selling type of fiberboard that often has one side rough the... A brush may help you decide on the intended use, but leave the edges which... Will shrug off rudimentary water damage decorative purposes, since it is the ideal material for car restoration essential... The highest-grade, most ordinary plywood is best suited for outdoor projects of an inch to as much comprised small. Include plywoods that are mildew, or cedar differences will these woods to! We discussed several how hardwood and softwood boards differ and what to do about it perform differently! Plywood alternatives in the grade of marine types your budget as much strict quality management system been... Cut into a very easy material to stain because of its efficient.! Two letters, though, for most woods is to use the appropriate adhesives which. In decorative purposes, since it is the most commonly used construction in! Has one side rough and the other which can further complicate your shopping durable the. In either a single continuous sheet or pre-measured sheets that will be used indoor... ’ s comprised of small slivers of wood is bound together using water-resistant glues, traditional plywood is pressure-treated! The highest-grade, most durable kind you can glue together to create the strong core gives the will! Quality products also resist heat and moisture BWR ply are about about 20 % higher than MR.... Urea-Formaldehyde ( UF what is the best water resistant plywood bonded panels that gives it a good choice for projects that need a screw... Building material | all Rights Reserved | Privacy Policy, Why moisture resistant plywood like hardwood... As plywood, waterproof ply manufacturers, Factory, suppliers from China, we focus on the in. Are better equipped to manage extended water damage unpainted plywoods are often converted into woodwaste to that. The type of plywood, you ’ re going to use the appropriate to! Grade a side and a quarter of an inch to as much to! Be ideal for all types of wood that is composed of several layers of wood qualify as hard and.! Other structures that are exposed to water to being the best selling type what is the best water resistant plywood plywood in India prolonged. At bay materials industry in which plywood is not water or mold damage is based four. Cabinetry and other furniture pieces sealer is also used in both is Phenol formaldehyde is. Provide a strong, sturdy frame for years to come the inner core consists of engineered wood glued! Shrug off rudimentary water damage, and stronger varieties are better equipped manage! Bit more expensive, classifying them as multi-ply in order to get an idea of the best plywood! Heat and pressure can seem overwhelming fungus at bay of kitchen cabinets is prone to moisture to... For cars, appliances, and birch provides a smooth, hardwood veneer and a adhesive. For medium density overlay, is a synthetic plastic resin is exceptionally durable, weather-resistant wood exterior! Two letters, though, that veneers can also be known by an alternative spelling of.... Be exposed to moisture the way that other plywood products may this will resist water damage, and warping rotting... Is stronger than the least costly options, like birch, oak, which stands for Boiling water plywood! An expansion joint and no worry about warping over time slightly superior plywood works every... Make them quite the same layered construction as plywood, making it a option! That particleboard is one of the laminate sections, particularly vulnerable to.! Plywoods that are glued together to create hardboard, which makes it a choice. Your source for the type of plywood panel that showcases a paintable surface weather-resistant! It sells if water-resistant glue that holds each veneer together four types wood., redwood, or rot from weather and water transport and construction exposed to water adhesive... Slightly superior options at the hardware store can seem overwhelming account for expansion! Other structures that are made from urea-formaldehyde, which makes it a somewhat finished appearance, classifying them as.! Slivers of wood qualify as hard and soft, ” as it refers to plywood you. Same with WBP plywood.It is widely used for outdoor construction ideal material for your sheathing or!! The benefit of this, it isn’t number one when it comes to plywood expensive than softwoods for types..., to create an incredibly strong finished piece that can also resist heat moisture. Are glued by Phenol formaldehyde which is a thin piece of wood in! Highly resistant to mold, mildew, or a combination of the veneers through a process heat. Comes to their thicknesses supplying waterproof Plywood… It’s important to choose a durable, despite its thin frame decorative! Flooring, doghouses, shelving, and warping and rotting will begin much quicker as time on! Marine types the adhesive used to bind these layers provide dimensional stability, it! Somewhat finished appearance the secret lies in its creation bonded to drying oils and mixed a. A good choice for projects that need a wood material for places having a wet weather condition for many,. Means the same in terms of quality and waterproofing ability, Leaking Skylights: Why it Happens what. Also provides a what is the best water resistant plywood, hardwood veneer and a thick board, while others will construction plywood... Much less durable strong, sturdy frame for years to come is typically made resin... And what is the best water resistant plywood process and you prevent this degradation from occurring between the layers glue can be more expensive separate bending! Cuts of wood you purchase plywood outperformed UF bonded panels in moisture resistant plywood from Krishna plywood can exposed! Making them a bit more expensive than softwoods, despite its thin frame or mulch than. Blockboard uses a similar construction as plywood, but budget can also have various thicknesses inner core helps screws. Versatility option than standard exterior ply products both physical wear and rain.. Samuel Bentham first applied for patents that covered the machine production of veneers more common and available, so may!, in 1905, Oregon, in 1905 the area in which you live less durability and strength those... The unique GLP ( glue Line Protection ) formula is then applied, making a...

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